 # Modes

The basic building block of a sequencing simulation is a Mode, which is a quantum harmonic oscillator with a finite number of levels that can be coupled to other modes, embedded in a larger Hilbert space, and acted upon by operators of the correct dimension.

Common Modes are Transmon and Cavity. A Transmon conventionally has two or three levels and relatively large anharmonicity or self-Kerr, and a Cavity conventionally has more than two levels and relatively small self-Kerr.

:

%config InlineBackend.figure_formats = ['svg']
%matplotlib inline
import inspect
import numpy as np
import qutip
from sequencing import Transmon, Cavity, System

:

q0 = Transmon('q0', levels=2, kerr=-200e-3)
q1 = Transmon('q1', levels=2, kerr=-200e-3)
c0 = Cavity('c0', levels=10, kerr=-10e-6)
c1 = Cavity('c1', levels=10, kerr=-10e-6)


## Operators

Modes have a number of operators (instances of qutip.Qobj) associated with them:

• I: the identity operator for the corresponding Hilbert space

• a: the mode annihilation operator

• ad = a.dag(): the mode creation operator

• n = ad * a: the mode number operator

• x =  ad + a: the mode position operator

• y = -1j * (a - ad): the mode momentum operator

Cavities have the following additional operators defined:

• D(alpha): Displacement operator

### Logical operators

#### In addition to standard oscillator operators, Modes have “logical qubit” operators:

The following “logical qubit” operators assume a certain encoding of a qubit into the state of the Mode, which is defined by the Mode.logical_zero() and Mode.logical_one() methods, which return the logical states $$|0_L\rangle$$ and $$|1_L\rangle$$ respectively. You can manually define the logical states of the cavity using Mode.set_logical_states(logical_zero, logical_one), where logical_zero and logical_one are qutip.Qobjs of the correct dimension. If the logical states have not been defined, then it is assumed that the qubit is defined in the Fock basis, $$|0_L\rangle\equiv|0\rangle$$, $$|1_L\rangle\equiv|1\rangle$$.

• sigmax(): Pauli $$X$$ operator, $$X = |0_L\rangle\langle1_L| + |1_L\rangle\langle0_L|$$

• sigmay(): Pauli $$Y$$ operator, $$Y = -i(|0_L\rangle\langle1_L| - |1_L\rangle\langle0_L|)$$

• sigmaz(): Pauli $$Z$$ operator, $$Z = |0_L\rangle\langle0_L| - |1_L\rangle\langle1_L|$$

• hadamard(): $$H = \frac{1}{\sqrt{2}} (X + Z)$$

• Raxis(theta, phi): Rotation operator about an axis determined by $$\phi$$: $$e^{-i\frac{\theta}{2}(\cos(\phi)X + \sin(\phi)Y)}$$

• Rx(theta): Rotation operator about the $$x$$ axis: $$e^{-i\frac{\theta}{2}X}$$

• Ry(theta): Rotation operator about the $$y$$ axis: $$e^{-i\frac{\theta}{2}Y}$$

• Rz(theta): Rotation operator about the $$z$$ axis: $$e^{-i\frac{\theta}{2}Z}$$

• Rphi(phi): Phase shift operator: $$e^{i\phi a^\dagger a}$$

### Operator dimensions

The dimension of these operators is determined by the mode’s space, which is simply an ordered list of Modes. By default, the space of a given Mode simply contains that Mode itself. The space for a given Mode can be set temporarily using the contextmanager Mode.use_space().

Modes also have a method Mode.basis(n) (also aliased as Mode.fock(n)) which by default returns the Fock state $$|n\rangle$$ = qutip.basis(mode.levels, n) embedded in the full system Hilbert space determined by mode.space, ordered as described below. If called with keyword argument full_space=False, Mode.fock(n) returns $$|n\rangle$$ in the single-mode space (dimension: [[mode.levels], ]).

:

qubit = q0
print(f'{qubit.name}.space = {[mode.name for mode in qubit.space]}\n')
for label in ['I', 'a', 'ad', 'n', 'x', 'y']:
print(f'{qubit.name}.{label}:')
operator = getattr(qubit, label)
display(operator)
print()

q0.space = ['q0']

q0.I:

Quantum object: dims = [, ], shape = (2, 2), type = oper, isherm = True\begin{equation*}\left(\begin{array}{*{11}c}1.0 & 0.0\\0.0 & 1.0\\\end{array}\right)\end{equation*}

q0.a:

Quantum object: dims = [, ], shape = (2, 2), type = oper, isherm = False\begin{equation*}\left(\begin{array}{*{11}c}0.0 & 1.0\\0.0 & 0.0\\\end{array}\right)\end{equation*}


Quantum object: dims = [, ], shape = (2, 2), type = oper, isherm = False\begin{equation*}\left(\begin{array}{*{11}c}0.0 & 0.0\\1.0 & 0.0\\\end{array}\right)\end{equation*}

q0.n:

Quantum object: dims = [, ], shape = (2, 2), type = oper, isherm = True\begin{equation*}\left(\begin{array}{*{11}c}0.0 & 0.0\\0.0 & 1.0\\\end{array}\right)\end{equation*}

q0.x:

Quantum object: dims = [, ], shape = (2, 2), type = oper, isherm = True\begin{equation*}\left(\begin{array}{*{11}c}0.0 & 1.0\\1.0 & 0.0\\\end{array}\right)\end{equation*}

q0.y:

Quantum object: dims = [, ], shape = (2, 2), type = oper, isherm = True\begin{equation*}\left(\begin{array}{*{11}c}0.0 & -1.0j\\1.0j & 0.0\\\end{array}\right)\end{equation*}


:

print(f'{q0.name}.space = {[mode.name for mode in q0.space]}\n')
with q0.use_space([q1, q0]):
print(f'{q0.name}.space = {[mode.name for mode in q0.space]}\n')
print(f'{q0.name}.space = {[mode.name for mode in q0.space]}\n')

q0.space = ['q0']

q0.space = ['q1', 'q0']

q0.space = ['q0']



When Modes are embedded into a larger Hilbert space, the operators inherit the dimension of that space.

By default Modes are ordered in the following way:

1. Left to right in reverse alphanumeric order

2. Left to right by increasing number of levels

So, for example, the default ordering for the two Transmons and two Cavities defined above would be: [q1, q0, c1, c0]. The state of the joint system (assuming no entanglement) would be given by

$|\texttt{q1}\rangle\otimes|\texttt{q0}\rangle\otimes|\texttt{c1}\rangle\otimes|\texttt{c0}\rangle$

If we add a new Transmon with two levels, q2, the joint state of the system becomes:

$|\texttt{q2}\rangle\otimes|\texttt{q1}\rangle\otimes|\texttt{q0}\rangle\otimes|\texttt{c1}\rangle\otimes|\texttt{c0}\rangle$

For the motivation behind this convention, see Someone shouts, “|01000>!” Who is Excited?.

:

q0.space = q1.space = [q1, q0]

for label in ['a']:
for qubit in [q0, q1]:
print(f'{qubit.name}.{label}:')
operator = getattr(qubit, label)
display(operator)
print()

q0.a:

Quantum object: dims = [[2, 2], [2, 2]], shape = (4, 4), type = oper, isherm = False\begin{equation*}\left(\begin{array}{*{11}c}0.0 & 1.0 & 0.0 & 0.0\\0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0\\0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 1.0\\0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0\\\end{array}\right)\end{equation*}

q1.a:

Quantum object: dims = [[2, 2], [2, 2]], shape = (4, 4), type = oper, isherm = False\begin{equation*}\left(\begin{array}{*{11}c}0.0 & 0.0 & 1.0 & 0.0\\0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 1.0\\0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0\\0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0\\\end{array}\right)\end{equation*}


:

q0_0 = q0.fock(0, full_space=False)
q0_1 = q0.fock(1, full_space=False)
q1_0 = q1.fock(0, full_space=False)
q1_1 = q1.fock(1, full_space=False)

print(q0.ad * qutip.tensor(q1_0, q0_0) == qutip.tensor(q1_0, q0_1))
print(q1.ad * qutip.tensor(q1_0, q0_0) == qutip.tensor(q1_1, q0_0))
print(q1.fock(1, full_space=True) == qutip.tensor(q1_1, q0_0))

True
True
True


### Operator expressions

sequencing allows you to evaluate mathematical expressions composed of single-mode operators using the method Mode.operator_expr(). This is especially useful when defining CouplingTerms, operators that couple two Modes together.

:

print(q0.operator_expr('a.dag() + a') == q0.a.dag() + q0.a == q0.x == q0.operator_expr('x'))

with q0.use_space([q0]):
print(q0.operator_expr('a.dag() + a') == q0.a.dag() + q0.a == q0.x == q0.operator_expr('x'))

True
True

:

print(q0.operator_expr('Rx(pi/2) * n') == q0.Rx(np.pi/2) * q0.n)

with q0.use_space([q0]):
print(q0.operator_expr('Rx(pi/2) * n') == q0.Rx(np.pi/2) * q0.n)

True
True


## Hamiltonian and coherence parameters

Modes have the following Hamiltonian and coherence parameters defined out of the box. Note that all Hamiltonian parameters are given in units of gigahertz and all coherence times are given in units of nanoseconds. Coherence parameters correspond to Linblad collapse operators:

• kerr: Mode self-Kerr (also known as anharmonicity for Transmons).

• Operator: pi * kerr * (ad * ad * a * a).

• Default value: kerr = 0 GHz.

• t1 and thermal_population: Mode energy relaxation time and equibilibrium excited state population.

• Collapse operators: sqrt(Gamma_down) * a and sqrt(Gamma_up) * ad, where Gamma_up = thermal_population / t1 and Gamma_down = 1 / t1 - Gamma_up.

• Default values: t1 = inf ns and thermal_population = 0

• t2: Mode dephasing time.

• Collapse operator: sqrt(2 / tphi) * n, where 1 / tphi = 1 / t2 - 1 / (2 * t1).

• Default value: t2 = inf ns.

As we will see later, couplings between Modes are defined in an object called a System.

:

q0.space = [q0]
q0.thermal_population = 0.05 # 5% |e> population
q0.t1 = 100e3 # ns
q0.t2 = 75e3 # ns

parameters = [
('thermal_population', ''),
('t1', 'ns'),
('t2', 'ns'),
('tphi', 'ns'),
('Gamma_up', 'GHz'),
('Gamma_down', 'GHz'),
]

for parameter, unit in parameters:
print(f'{q0.name}.{parameter} = {getattr(q0, parameter):.1e} {unit}')

for name in ['decay', 'excitation', 'dephasing']:
print(f'\n{q0.name}.{name}:')
display(getattr(q0, name))

q0.thermal_population = 5.0e-02
q0.t1 = 1.0e+05 ns
q0.t2 = 7.5e+04 ns
q0.tphi = 1.2e+05 ns
q0.Gamma_up = 5.0e-07 GHz
q0.Gamma_down = 9.5e-06 GHz

q0.decay:

Quantum object: dims = [, ], shape = (2, 2), type = oper, isherm = False\begin{equation*}\left(\begin{array}{*{11}c}0.0 & 0.003\\0.0 & 0.0\\\end{array}\right)\end{equation*}

q0.excitation:

Quantum object: dims = [, ], shape = (2, 2), type = oper, isherm = False\begin{equation*}\left(\begin{array}{*{11}c}0.0 & 0.0\\7.071\times10^{-04} & 0.0\\\end{array}\right)\end{equation*}

q0.dephasing:

Quantum object: dims = [, ], shape = (2, 2), type = oper, isherm = True\begin{equation*}\left(\begin{array}{*{11}c}0.0 & 0.0\\0.0 & 0.004\\\end{array}\right)\end{equation*}

## Pulses

PulseModes like Transmon and Cavity are Modes with Pulses attached, for use in constructing time-dependent Hamiltonians. Pulses are simply objects with parameters that, when called, return an array of complex numbers to be interpreted as time-dependent coefficients for one or more operators. For example, for a Transmon the real (imaginary) part typically represents the coefficients for transmon.x (transmon.y).

By default, a PulseMode is initialized with a GaussianPulse and a SmoothedConstantPulse, but more pulses can be added using the PulseMode.add_pulse() method.

:

print(list(q0.pulses))
print(list(q0.pulses))

['smoothed_constant_pulse', 'gaussian_pulse']
['smoothed_constant_pulse', 'gaussian_pulse', 'selective_pulse']

:

ax = q0.smoothed_constant_pulse.plot(amp=0.35, sigma=20, length=100)
ax = q0.gaussian_pulse.plot(drag=-4, ax=ax)
ax = q0.selective_pulse.plot(amp=0.2, ax=ax) ### Defining a custom pulse

You can define your own pulse by creating a subclass of sequencing.pulses.Pulse.

:

import attr
from sequencing.pulses import Pulse
from sequencing.parameters import NanosecondParameter

def triangle_wave(length):
t0 = length // 2
ts = np.linspace(-t0, t0, int(length))
return 1 - np.abs(ts / t0)

@attr.s
class TrianglePulse(Pulse):
pulse_func = staticmethod(triangle_wave)
length = NanosecondParameter(101)

:

tri = TrianglePulse('triangle_pulse')
ax = tri.plot()
_ = tri.plot(detune=5e-2, amp=0.5, ax=ax)
_ = tri.plot(phase=np.pi, amp=0.5, ax=ax) :

q0.add_pulse(cls=TrianglePulse)
print(list(q0.pulses))

['smoothed_constant_pulse', 'gaussian_pulse', 'selective_pulse', 'triangle_pulse']


### Control amplitude noise

Power-law Gaussian noise (“colored noise”) can be added to Pulses via the parameters noise_sigma and noise_alpha. The noise is Gaussian distributed with zero mean and a standard deviation of noise_sigma, and the power spectral density is proportional to S(f) = (1/f)**noise_alpha. noise_sigma defaults to 0 (no noise), and noise_alpha defaults to 0 (white noise). noise_alpha = 1 corresponds to 1/f noise.

There is a third parameter, scale_noise, which determines whether noise_sigma is interpreted as an absolute amplitude (with units of GHz) or relative amplitude (with units of maximum pulse amplitude). By default, scale_noise = False, so the noise amplitude is absolute.

:

ax = q0.selective_pulse.plot(amp=q0.selective_pulse.amp)
_ = q0.selective_pulse.plot(noise_sigma=2e-2, ax=ax)
_ = q0.selective_pulse.plot(amp=0.5, noise_sigma=2e-2, ax=ax)
_ = q0.selective_pulse.plot(amp=0.5, noise_sigma=2e-2, scale_noise=True, ax=ax) :

from qutip.ipynbtools import version_table
version_table()

:

SoftwareVersion
QuTiP4.7.0
Numpy1.23.2
SciPy1.9.1
matplotlib3.5.3
Cython0.29.32
Number of CPUs2
BLAS InfoOPENBLAS
IPython8.4.0
Python3.8.6 (default, Oct 19 2020, 15:10:29) [GCC 7.5.0]
OSposix [linux]
Tue Aug 30 19:15:29 2022 UTC
[ ]: